Athletes’ Use of Mental Skills During Sport Injury Rehabilitation

Arvinen-Barrow, Monna and Clement, Damien and Hamson-Utley, Jennifer J. and Zakrajsek, Rebecca A. and Lee, Sae-Mi and Kamphoff, Cindra and Lintunen, Taru and Hemmings, Brian and Martin, Scott B. (2015) Athletes’ Use of Mental Skills During Sport Injury Rehabilitation. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 24 (2). pp. 189-197. ISSN 1056-6716

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2013-0148

Abstract

Context: Existing theoretical frameworks and empirical research support the applicability and usefulness of integrating mental skills throughout sport injury rehabilitation. Objective: To determine what, if any, mental skills athletes use during injury rehabilitation, and by who these skills were taught. Cross-cultural differences were also examined. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: College athletes from 5 universities in the United States and a mixture of collegiate, professional, and recreational club athletes from the United Kingdom and Finland were recruited for this study. Participants: A total of 1283 athletes from the United States, United Kingdom, and Finland, who participated in diverse sports at varying competitive levels took part in this study. Main Outcome Measures: As part of a larger study on athletes’ expectations of injury rehabilitation, participants were asked a series of open-ended and closed-ended questions concerning their use of mental skills during injury rehabilitation. Results: Over half (64.0%) of the sample reported previous experience with athletic training, while 27.0% indicated that they used mental skills during injury rehabilitation. The top 3 mental skills reported were goal setting, positive self-talk/positive thoughts, and imagery. Of those athletes that used mental skills, 71.6% indicated that they felt mental skills helped them to rehabilitate faster. A greater proportion of athletes from the United States (33.4%) reported that they used mental skills during rehabilitation compared with athletes from the United Kingdom (23.4%) and Finland (20.3%). A small portion (27.6%) of the participants indicated that their sports medicine professional had taught them how to use mental skills; only 3% were taught mental skills by a sport psychologist. Conclusions: The low number of athletes who reported using mental skills during rehabilitation is discouraging, but not surprising given research findings that mental skills are underutilized by injured athletes in the 3 countries examined. More effort should be focused on educating and training athletes, coaches, and sports medicine professionals on the effectiveness of mental training in the injury rehabilitation context.

Item Type: Journal Article
Subjects: 100 Philosophy & psychology > 158 Applied psychology
600 Technology > 612 Human physiology
700 The arts; fine & decorative arts; recreation > 796 Athletic & outdoor sports & games
School/Department: School of Sport, Health and Applied Science
Depositing User: Jonathan Lucas
Date Deposited: 19 Feb 2016 15:06
Last Modified: 19 Feb 2016 15:06
URI: http://research.stmarys.ac.uk/id/eprint/986

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